Name of Fishery: P. semisulcatus (Gear-Trawl)

Target species: Flower shrimp  (Green tiger prawn)

Location: India

Fishing area: FAO-57 (Mandapam)

Fishery history: Commercial fishery only along Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay (Rao et al., 1993). 1973 onwards data available. During 1973-78 P.semisulcatus formed 82.7% (219-343t) of the total prawn catch. During 1986-1993 although there is increase in landing but the proportion in prawnlanding declined sharply 349-452t (32.8%) (Maheswarudu et al., 1996).

Stock Biology: MSY is 363 t. The differential growth between the sexes occurred as the prawns grew to 40 to 50 mm. Males/females attained a size of I I 5/125 mm at the end of 6 months, 170/195 mm at 12 months, 215/250 mm at 24 months and 230/270 mm at the end of 36 months in the Palk Bay (Maheswarudu et al., 1994). Juveniles in sea grass bed areas in shallow waters. Limited existence in estuarine environment. Majority attain maturity at 31-32 mm carapace length. Spawning throughout the year. No spawning migration of the species in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay (Thomas, 1974). Rao et al., (1993) studied growth rate of the species landed at Mandapam during 1986-88 from mechanised trawlers (Male: Lα210 mm, K 1.7 Y-1, length at 6 months 120 mm, length at 12 months 170 mm; Female: Lα261 mm, K 1.3 Y-1, length at 6 months 135 mm, length at 12 months 195 mm).

Data on target species: Yes, stock assessment data available. Stock assessment was done in 1993 (Rao et al., 1993).Catch per unit effort data and landings data also available.Data collected by Scientist and technicians, analysed and stored by scientists. Data is collected by multistage stratified random sampling. Sear ranching of this species was done by CMFRI in the Palk Bay and found ranched population get recruited to the fishery (Rao et al.,1989; Pillai et al.,1991; Rao et al.,1993:)

Fishing activities: The species is caught using mechanised trawl net, disco gill net and thalluvalaiThalluvalai is used for fishing prawns from the inshore waters of the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. Disco gill net is operated south of Tuticorin in the Gulf of Mannar and in Palk Bay off Devipattinam and other places (Rajamani, 2013). Both male and female caught. Fishing throughout the year. Size range71-225 mm in male and 60-280 mm in female. Along the Tinnalvelly coast, the species is fished from three grounds namely Pattanamudur- Tuticorin, Punnaikayal and Manapad ranging respectively in depth from 0 to 2 m, 8 to 20 m and 15 to 30 m. Prawns in maturing stages are always found in the deeper fishing grounds indicating that they move to deeper water for breeding (Manisseri, 1986).

Volume caught

Ecosystem impacts: Thallumadi (indigenous trawl net) also employed in shallow waters and seagrass beds.

Threat to sustainability:Operation of thalluvalai which catch the juvenile P. semisulcatus from the sea grass beds in nearshore waters (3-4 m depth) is a threat to sustainability of the resource, as sea grass beds are their nursery grounds. The size range from 31 to 100 mm with the dominant size being 45-70 mm (Manickam et al., 1987).

Fishers: Only male fishers.

Management Agencies: CMFRI gives advice to the state government about stock management. 

Management Regime: 

Management compliance:

Community participation in:


Processing and Marketing Information: Immediately after landing the resource is purchased by buyer and transported to the processing unit based at Ramanathapuram. After processing, product is exported mainly to Japan.

Interest in Certification: No information.

Stakeholders: Fishermen, middlemen, buyer, processors, government organisations – CMFRI, MPEDA, EIA, DOF, Tamil Nadu, local authorities. 


Maheswarudu, G. Manickam Sampson, P. E., Rao, P. V., and Arputharaj, M. R. 1996. Observations on the exploitation of penaeid prawn resources in the Palk Bay off Mandapam during 1986-1993. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 43(3): 205-213.

Maheswarudu, G. Manickam Sampson, P. E., Rao, P. V., Arputharaj, M. R and Muniyandi, K. 1994. Some aspects of biology and exploitation of the green tiger prawn, Penaeus {Penaeus) semisitlcatus de Haan from Mandapam (Palk Bay) and Pamban (Gulf of Mannar), southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 41(2): 55-64.

Manisseri Mary, K. 1986. On the fishery of Penaeus semisulcatus and its distribution in relation to depth along Tinnevely Coast, southern India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 33(4): 402-412.

Rajamani, M. 2013. Penaeussemisulcatus. In Handbook of Marine Prawns of India. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi. PP: 283-296.

SudhakaraRao, G.,ThangarajSubramaniam, V., Rajamani, M., SampsonManickam, P. E. and Maheswarudu, G. 1993.Stock assessment of Penaeus spp. along the east coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 40(1&2): 1-19.

Sampson Manickam, P. E.,Arputharaj, M. R and Vedavyasa Rao, P. 1989. Exploitation of juveniles of Green tiger prawn Penaeus (Penaeus) semisulcatus along Palk Bay and its impact on the prawn fishery of the region. National Symposium on Research and Development in Marine Fisheries, Mandapam Camp, CMFRI Bulletin No.44: 137-144.

Thomas, M. M. 1974. Reproduction, fecundity and sex ratio of the green tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus de Haan. Indian Journal of Fisheries., 21 (1): 152-163.

Rao, P Vedavyasa, Pillai, N N,  Sampson Manickam, P E, Maheswarudu, G and Arputharaj, M R (1989) Shrimp ranching. In: Coastal Zone Management in Tamil Nadu State, India. Institute of Ocean Management, Anna University, Chennai, pp. 198-203.

P. Vedavyasa Rao, N. N. Pillal, E. V. Radhakrlshnan, P. E. Sampson Manlckam, G. Maheswarudu, M. R. Arputharaj and K. N. Gopalakrlshnan. 1993. Proceedings of the seminar on sea ranching held at CMFRI on 28-04-1993: Sea ranching of prawn, Mar. Fish. Infor. Serv., T&E Ser., No. 124:1-5.

Pillai N. N., E. V. Radhakrishanan, G. Maheswarudu, M. R. Arpthuraj, and K. N. Gopalakrishnan. 1991. Successful sea ranching programme for shrimps by CMFRI. CMFRI Newsletter, 52: 1-4.